Each time a state considers the possibility for recreational cannabis, various discussions take place as lawmakers and voters consider how legal cannabis might affect the economy, public health and more. From taxes to regulations, adult-use of cannabis requires a lot of planning. With its legalization, Public Health-Seattle and King County decided to observe how legalizing cannabis affects youth cannabis usage. Assessing a period more than a decade long, the public health department found that cannabis use among teens in Washington State had either stayed the same or dropped following the legalization of recreational cannabis.
Written by Myduc Ta, Lindsey Greto and Kaylin Bolt, the study emphasized the importance of tracking the relationship between legalization and underage consumption. The researchers observed children in even-numbered grades from sixth through 12th and found that even with the arrival of recreational cannabis, rates of cannabis consumption among these age groups did not increase. Being the county with the largest population in Washington State, King County serves as a representative of the 10 other states that have also legalized recreational use. “This decline or absence of change in youth marijuana use after legalization of retail sales to adults is consistent with trends reported in Colorado and Oregon,” stated in the discussion section of the report.
The report utilized information collected between the years 2004 and 2016. The Washington State Healthy Youth Survey provided the data from students in the targeted age range. Public schools were chosen randomly, but those not chosen could still opt to participate. The school-based survey inquired about students’ cannabis consumption in the past 30 days and participants kept their anonymity. Grades 6, 10 and 12 had drops in cannabis usage following legalization in 2012, while rates for grade 8 remained the same.
Percentages for 2016 were “0.6 percent among grade 6, 4.1 percent among grade 8, 13.9 percent among grade 10, and 25.5 percent among grade 12 students,” as shared in the report findings. With these results in mind the authors of the report explained that because the survey data stopped in the year 2016, the results did not include e-cigarettes, which have risen in popularity in recent years.
“However, causality of the observed decrease in youth use following retail sale legalization cannot be inferred, because effects might be delayed and this report does not include data from the timeframe that would capture the more recent surge in e-cigarette use by youth and the use of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) within electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) devices. Although the relationship between legal adult recreational use and youth use is not well understood, two possible reasons for the observed decline in youth use include reduction of illicit market supply through competition and loss of novelty appeal among youths,” it stated.
Continuing cannabis research in relation to public health and the community is essential to policy development, debunking misconceptions and creating a better understanding of cannabis overall.
Cannabis Survey Seeks Input from New Jersey Mayors
A survey put out by the New Jersey League of Municipalities (NJLM) and the Cannabis Advisory Group is seeking the input of state mayors regarding the newly legal cannabis industry in New Jersey.
“The purpose of this survey is to identify the most pressing challenges and concerns facing their communities in preparation for the sale of both medical and adult-use cannabis and help inform and guide our work with the State Cannabis Regulatory Commission,” said Mayor of Clinton, Janice Kovach, who is also the president of the NJLM.
The NJLM hopes to gather data to help them learn more about what challenges they may face as local government representatives. The survey asks about whether municipalities will be allowing cannabis businesses, and to what degree they will be allowing legal cannabis sales, grows or other facilities in their areas.
“It’s an exciting new landscape in New Jersey, but marijuana legalization also poses a lot of unknowns, particularly on the local level,” said Jacqueline Ferraro of the Cannabis Advisory Group. “To help ensure the industry’s success, we felt it was important to gather a comprehensive understanding of the concerns, questions and predispositions of our municipalities. By teaming up with the League, we hope to help policymakers, entrepreneurs and community members strategically address those issues that are most pressing as legalization moves forward.”
She claims that the plan “is to hear from all of our communities on the impact of recreational cannabis—especially what they want to see from the League and the Advisory Group as resources.”
“We are a diverse state of 565 municipalities and there is no one size fits all,” she added. “This survey will help guide the tools that need to be made available for informed decisions.” The survey will provide more insight about cannabis and what New Jersey can expect when it becomes officially legal on January 1, 2021.
Medical Cannabis Success in Three-Year-Old Prompts Legal Review
The family of a toddler with a rare form of epilepsy is asking for a legal review of cannabis oil in Norwich, England.
Three-year-old Charlie Hughes suffers from West syndrome, a condition that can cause him to experience up to 120 seizures every day. With the addition of a proper medical cannabis oil regimen, his parents Alison and Matt Hughes report that he now suffers from less than 20 seizures per day. According to The Guardian, the National Health Service (NHS) prescribed Charlie with a number of pharmaceutical drugs in the past that not only caused him to experience lethargy regularly, but did not effectively reduce his seizures.
Ever since Charlie began taking medical cannabis, he has become more vibrant and alive than ever before. “Charlie is happier, more alert, far more vocal, constantly babbling and takes an interest in his toys,” Matt told The Guardian. “He can feed himself and loves nothing more than some rough and tumble with me. He’s come alive again. No one knows definitively what effect all those anti-epileptic drugs in combination with each other have on the development of the brain. If he wasn’t asleep or completely zonked out, he was just seizing. Cannabis has massively improved his general wellbeing.”
The Hughes family has found its medicine of choice, but it is a complicated process due to the fact that although medical cannabis oil is legal, it still remains unlicensed in England. The family is forced to source Charlie’s medicine privately, because the NHS will not prescribe cannabis to them directly. Similar instances for other families have caused hardships and stress, so the Hughes are taking the issue to court.
Having seen the impressive results, Matt has partnered with the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) for legal aid. As of July 30, a court justice granted permission to call for a formal review due to reasons such as “alleged inadequate consultation” and “alleged failure to take into account relevant considerations,” as stated in court documents.
Professionals such as Professor Harry Sumnall from Liverpool John Moores University believe that a formal review could help the NHS open up the conversation to prescribing medical cannabis in the future. “Nice has argued that the guidance is clear and that there is nothing stopping the NHS from currently prescribing cannabis-based products. Perhaps a successful outcome for the claimant will lead to clarity over this or generate momentum for prescribing in the claimant’s particular case,” Sumnall said.
NICE has provided the NHS with 35 days to contest this claim, which will conclude at the end of August.
Creating partnerships can prove to be beneficial in any industry, and the cannabis industry is no exception. When two institutions have something of value to offer, they often can accomplish more together. The researchers at Washington State University (WSU) and the team at the Biopharmaceutical Research Company (BRC) no doubt hope to realize this kind of successful partnership. Their alliance was announced in early November, in which BRC will provide analytical services to researchers at the university. The university’s researchers will also have better access to cannabis as a result of the partnership.
As a pharmaceutical manufacturer and analytics company, BRC was built by its founders to provide a solution to the lack of certified cannabis needed for scientific research. The team at BRC is comprised of horticulture experts, academics, pharmaceutical manufacturers and much more. The company website states, “We take our responsibility to provide the scientific community with superior quality cannabis seriously.”
The chair of the WSU Collaborative for Cannabis Policy, Research and Outreach, Michael McDonell shared with CULTURE, “We would like to have the ability to obtain cannabis for research that allows us to conduct animal and human research related to health and public safety. Once BRC obtains a schedule one license to grow cannabis for research, we are hoping we will be able to obtain cannabis for research from BRC.”
The university hopes to expand its work with cannabis once the BRC receives a license to cultivate cannabis. “Our ongoing work is primarily related to animal research focused on the impact of cannabis on health. We are also conducting human research, but none that requires a Schedule 1 license,” McDonell explained.
The research team at WSU has already been allowed cannabis possession by the federal government. However, other difficulties in conducting research linger. Despite the partnership McDonell said the “difficulties remain the same,” but the alliance gives possibility for future growth in research.
“We would like to have the ability to obtain cannabis for research that allows us to conduct animal and human research related to health and public safety.”
Traditionally, cannabis research has been met with resistance and multiple legal obstacles. It was only in August of this year that U.S. Department of Justice decided to expand the 2016 program by allowing other cannabis producers to obtain licensing to supply cannabis for research. Before this decision, those looking to study cannabis could only use product from one federally approved producer. As demand for “research cannabis” continues to climb, the federal government needs to meet the demand with better policies and accessibility for research.
Yet the question remains, why is it still so difficult to obtain cannabis for necessary and beneficial scientific research? Although recreational cannabis is not yet accepted at the federal level, it is hard to deny that more studies on cannabis would provide various benefits to public health.
While advocates, patients, caretakers and recreational consumers of cannabis wait for these necessary changes to cannabis research accessibility, BRC is currently looking to analyze, import and one day grow cannabis for itself. The company is already registered with the Drug Enforcement Administration to conduct research on cannabis derived products. Right now, BRC waits for the approval of the federal government as they have already filed for a cultivation permit. Products produced by BRC could then be used for federally approved studies.
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